Knowledge transfer is a process of exchange of explicit or tacit knowledge between two agents, during which one agent purposefully receives and uses the knowledge provided by another where agent may be an individual, a team, an organizational unit. An organizational ability to transfer knowledge towards its employees, functional areas, and geographical locations is a key determinant of the success of its knowledge management activity. Once the knowledge has been created then it has to be shared with the colleagues, teammates, and coworkers. Both sharing and transferring of knowledge is vital for good knowledge management and effective communication of employees based on the analysis of. Some of the knowledge is very easy to transfer like codified knowledge such as best practice, charted business plan, rules, regulations and policies and procedures. This knowledge can be captured and distributed to many members of the organizations through multiple mechanisms. In such kind of knowledge, technology-based knowledge management system can handle and becomes foundational for any knowledge management programs. Other knowledge which is more tacit and non-codifiable knowledge that exists within people are more difficult to externalize and to share inside the organization.
2-Knowledge Management Master Plan in IPMI Co.
Knowledge Management Master Plan has eight stages procedure, it implemented based on reliable KM theories. After knowledge audition in an organization, effective strategies for the organization get identified and adopted in 3 principals of KM, Culture, Structure and Technology.
The most significant concern of organizations about KM implementation is its multidisciplinary entity which is based on this principle.
2-1 Objectives of KMMP
• Organizing created knowledge (experiences, technical and managerial tips) in an organization i.e. gathering, assessment, packaging and retrieve of knowledge through a comprehensive KM system in order to creating a knowledge bank;
• Identifying knowledge fields and measuring knowledge in each;
• Organizing knowledge documents of the organization i.e. capturing and categorizing the documents like reports, researches, papers, and… on the web;
• Developing knowledge map of the organization to know who are knowledge holders in a field and where they are located;
• Question asking process in the KM software to deliver a question to the most appropriate person to answer;
• Creating a decision making support system based on the acquired knowledge for managers;
• Formulating strategies for improving knowledge sharing culture in the organization;
• Developing areas for face to face knowledge sharing;
• Institutionalizing roles of KM teams and Knowledge engineers in an organization to make KM efforts continuous ;
• Providing KM regulations and reward & encouragement for structuring KM activities.
3-KM software MTAShare
KM implementation in today organizations is not possible without KM technologies. MTAShare is a web based KM system which collects employees, departments and projects' knowledge. Moreover, it provides easy Knowledge Assessment, Knowledge Packaging and Knowledge retrieval procedures. MTAShare also offers knowledge map facilities through giving appropriate access to organization's experts based on knowledge tree of the organization.
MTAshare is capable of measuring organizational knowledge automatically. It collects knowledge documents, categorizes them and can do advanced search and retrieve them easily. This software is comprised of subsystems like Knowledge Cycle, Knowledge Assessment, Knowledge Map, Rewarding Subsystem, Documents Cycle, Knowledge Measurement, Question Cycle And Forums and several other capabilities.
4-Knowledge Cycle Subsystem
Through this subsystem, each user gets able to write their lessons learned in the appropriate article template and put it in the assessment cycle. They can also attach needed files to their article in different vocal, video, text, picture… formats.
The system identifies related knowledge fields of the article and sends it to the appropriate experts for assessment. The experts grade the article without being aware of the article author's name. Based on the grade given to the article, it will be either accepted to be stored and retrievable in the system or rejected.
The system also benefits from advanced search capability which allows users to search and retrieve their needed knowledge efficiently.
According the recent inspections and benchmarks, MTAshare is competitive with other KM systems worldwide totally.
5-Knowledge Assessment Subsystem
MTAshare assesses knowledge articles in a way that each article is sent to a group of the most proper experts and is assessed in a determined time. Grades are summed based on especial mechanisms. Discordant marks are deleted and lead to decrease in expertise grade of the expert after a while to prevent from bad assessments.
6-Financial Reward Subsystem
MTAshare KM reward subsystem utilizes various motivational factors for encouraging employees to use the software for sharing their knowledge. Financial system is one of the most important motivation subsystems in MTAshare software.
This system automatically rewards knowledge creators, experts who assess knowledge articles, and knowledge users by the use of formulas in KM practical-academic literature and based on knowledge workers grades. In case of necessity, reports are sent to financial department of organization via email. It should be mentioned that many of internal mechanisms of this subsystem have decreased misuse of that to zero and has created the highest point of social and technical security. Moreover, the authorized managers of MTAshare have the most control on this section in terms of determining total reward, payment method, weights, etc.
7-Knowledge Map Subsystem
In this subsystem, user can see knowledge map of organization, organizational departments, and employees. MTAshare knowledge map displays that how many knowledge and experience each person has gotten in which domains. These maps can be given to project managers as the best tool for choosing team members.
Knowledge maps are dynamic and are based on knowledge articles. This subsystem is completely connected to knowledge cycle subsystem and is the best instrument for finding experts and specialists in wide organizations.
8-Knowledge package subsystem
By the help of this subsystem, huge amount of entered articles is categorized automatically and possibility of exporting knowledge packages is created. This way, after a while an organization can easily export knowledge packages of different domains. These packages are codified in different domains and with different access levels.
Managers can access to report of organization, departments, groups and employee's knowledge according to their access level. Various reports are available for stakeholders in this subsystem.
10-Dynamic Connecting Subsystem
MTAshare able to connect managers, experts, specialists, etc. together. This subsystem sends unanswered questions to proper experts and collects their answers automatically. It is also able to create virtual groups and connect knowledge management teams.
11-Knowledge Documents Subsystem
This subsystem gets various knowledge documents of different types from Authorized personnel. The system has also advanced search possibility, in the documents. The documents can be books, articles, reports, researches, etc.
12-Knowledge Personnel Profile Subsystem
In order to encourage knowledge personnel, subsystem of knowledge profiles automatically produces personnel profiles with high flexibility. Each profile includes knowledge and knowledge domains, resume and knowledge graphs of the knowledge personnel. Profile is a place in which users can send message to each other and get aware of their expert fields and created knowledge as well.
13-Knowledge Departments profile Subsystem
For connecting different departments in the matter of knowledge, a knowledge profile is created for each department in which its knowledge, knowledge domains status, experts and members, questions and other useful information about the department are updated and shared automatically. This subsystem has deep application in departments’ knowledge competition and their knowledge acquisition.
14-Community of Practice (COP) Subsystem
This subsystem able to create and manage different online COPs in an organization. It also gives possibility of asking and answering questions as well as online and offline meetings. For this purpose, knowledge forums are designed in which knowledge exchange takes place.